The co-occurrence of moniliformin (MON), fumonisins (FBs), and deoxynivalenol (DON) was evaluated in maize, durum, and common wheat grown in different experimental fields located in several Italian regions. MON was quantified using a LC-MS/MS method adding lanthanum ions in the mobile phase. In maize, MON contamination was widespread and considerable; the toxin was detected in almost all the samples (95.1%) and exceeded 500 and 1000 µg kg−1 in 42.0% and in 18.5% of samples, respectively. Significant positive correlation was found between MON and FB contamination levels. When there were not droughty climate conditions, a positive significant correlation was found between growing degree days (GDD) and MON values. In wheat, MON contamination was not widespread like in maize and it was lower in common wheat than in durum wheat. In durum wheat, MON was detected in 45.0% of the samples with only 6 samples (7.5%) exceeding 500 µg kg−1, while in common wheat the toxin was detected above the LOD in 18.7% of samples exceeding 100 µg kg−1 in only two samples (2.5%). No correlation was found with DON contamination. Climate conditions influenced both MON and DON occurrence.
- Fusarium mycotoxins