Co-occurrence of fragile x syndrome with a second genetic condition: Three independent cases of double diagnosis

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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism caused by the instability of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the FMR1 gene. The co-occurrence of FXS with other genetic disorders has only been occasionally reported. Here, we describe three independent cases of FXS co-segregation with three different genetic conditions, consisting of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), PPP2R5D–related neurodevelopmental disorder, and 2p25.3 deletion. The co-occurrence of DMD and FXS has been reported only once in a young boy, while in an independent family two affected boys were described, the elder diagnosed with FXS and the younger with DMD. This represents the second case in which both conditions coexist in a 5-year-old boy, inherited from his heterozygous mother. The next double diagnosis had never been reported before: through exome sequencing, a girl with FXS who was of 7 years of age with macrocephaly and severe psychomotor delay was found to carry a de novo variant in the PPP2R5D gene. Finally, a maternally inherited 2p25.3 deletion associated with a decreased level of the MYT1L transcript, only in the patient, was observed in a 33-year-old FXS male with severe seizures compared to his mother and two sex-and age-matched controls. All of these patients represent very rare instances of genetic conditions with clinical features that can be modified by FXS and vice versa.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1909-N/A
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2021


  • 2p25.3 deletion
  • Mutation
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Personalized medicine
  • PPP2R5D gene
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
  • Fragile X Syndrome
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Megalencephaly
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Protein Phosphatase 2
  • Transcription Factors
  • Whole Exome Sequencing
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy


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