Perioperative hemodynamic management, through monitoring and intervention on physiological parameters to improve Cardiac Output and Oxygen Delivery (Goal-directed therapy, GDT), may improve outcome. However, an Italian survey has revealed that hemodynamic protocols are applied by only 29,1% of anesthesiologists. Aim of this paper is to provide clinical guidelines for a rationale use of perioperative hemodynamic management in non cardiac surgical adult patients, oriented for Italy and updated with most recent studies. Guidelines were elaborated according to NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) and GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations of Assessment Development and Evaluations). Key questions were formulated according to PICO system (Population, Intervention, Comparators, Outcome). Guidelines and systematic reviews were identified on main research databases and strategy was updated to June 2018. There is not enough good quality evidence to support the adoption of a GDT protocol in order to reduce mortality, although it may be useful in high risk patients. Perioperative GDT protocol to guide fluid therapy is recommended to reduce morbidity. Continuous monitoring of arterial pressure may help to identify short periods of hemodynamic instability and hypotension. Fluid strategy should aim to a near zero balance in normovolemic patients at the beginning of surgery, and a slight positive fluid balance may be allowed to protect renal function. Drugs such as inotropes, vasocostrictors, and vasodilatator should be used only when fluids alone are not sufficient to optimize hemodynamics. Perioperative GDT protocols are associated with a reduction in costs, although no economic study has been performed in Italy.
- Hemodynamics surgery anesthesia