Red grape skins recovered from ten winemaking processes were analyzed for total phenolic content (Folin Ciocalteu assay), proanthocyanidins (n-butanol/HCl assay), individual phenolics (UPLC-DAD-MS), in vitro ferric ion reducing capacity and anti-glycation activity by bovine serum albumin/fructose and bovine serum albumin/methylglyoxal model systems. The aim was to assess if these by-products have potential as dietary anti-glycation agents, to prevent the glyco-oxidative stress associated with type-2 diabetes.Variability was observed in total phenolics (12.1-53.6. g gallic acid Eq/kg), proanthocyanidins (7.2-51.1. g/kg), anthocyanins (2.5-13.8. g malvidin 3-O glucoside Eq/kg), flavonols (0.3-2.6. g quercetin 3-O glucoside Eq/kg) and reducing capacity (103-511. mmol Fe(II) Eq/kg). For all samples, the anti-glycation effectiveness was higher than that of commercial nutraceutical preparations. Hence, in spite of differences in cultivar, location of the vineyard and winemaking procedures, these by-products could be used as a source of cost-effective anti-glycation agent either as a food ingredient or as a nutraceutical preparation.
- Grape skinsi
- Protein glycation