Characteristics, usability, and users experience of a system combining cognitive and physical therapy in a virtual environment: Positive bike

Elisa Pedroli, Luca Greci, Desirèe Colombo, Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Sara Arlati, Marta Mondellini, Lorenzo Boilini, Valentina Giussani, Karine Goulene, Monica Agostoni, Marco Sacco, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Giuseppe Riva, Andrea Gaggioli

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

29 Citazioni (Scopus)


We present the architecture and usability evaluation of virtual reality system—“Positive Bike”—designed for improving cognitive and motor conditions in frail elderly patients. The system consists of a cycle-ergometer integrated in an immersive virtual reality system (CAVE) which allows combining motor and cognitive exercises according to a “dual-task” paradigm. We tested the usability and user’s experience of the prototype in a pilot evaluation study that involved five elderly patients. The prototype was tested in one-session training to understand the limitations and areas for improvement of our system. The evaluation consisted in (i) usability assessment using the system usability scale; (ii) evaluation of user’s engagement using the flow state scale; and (iii) expert evaluation involving interviews with domain experts. Results showed a good usability, both for system usability scale and the semi-structured interview. The level of flow (i.e., enjoyment with the task at hand) measured using the short flow state scale, was also high. Analysis of semi-structured interview carried out with domain experts provided further indications to improve the system. Overall, these findings show that, despite some limitations, the system is usable and provides an enjoyable user’s experience.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)2343-N/A
Numero di pagine16
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2018


  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ageing
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Bicycling
  • Biochemistry
  • Cognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Female
  • Frailty
  • Humans
  • Instrumentation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Rehabilitation
  • UX
  • Usability
  • User-Computer Interface
  • Virtual Reality
  • Virtual reality


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