The presence of cartilage in gliomas is a very unusual finding and has been mainly reported in ependymomas and in astrocytomas. A derivation of cartilage from neuroepithelial cells through a neuroepithelial-mesenchymal transition or directly from blood vessel-associated multipotent stromal elements has been proposed. We herein describe a further case of ependymoma with the presence of cartilage in a child affected by a tumor in the posterior fossa. In this case, only the last recurrence, characterized by focal areas of anaplasia, contained a nodule of cartilage. The immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin, tenascin-C, and CD44 was investigated, and the possible role of these molecules in the process of cartilage formation is discussed. Moreover, the literature on the subject is reviewed.
- Extracellular matrix
- Glial tumors