Cardiovascular risk/benefit profile of MHT

Paola Villa, Giovanni Scambia, Fabio Ingravalle

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

3 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background and Objectives: Data emerging from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study point toward an association between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, post hoc subgroup analyses stratifying participants according to their age and time since menopause, have opened the way to a better understanding of the relationship between estrogen and CV risk. The aim of this review was to revise the current literature and evaluate the CV risk or benefit following administration of MHT considering several factors such as MHT timing, dose, route of administration, and formulation. Materials and Methods: An electronic databases search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SCOPUS, congress abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar; British Library) was performed, with the date range from each database's inception until June 2019. All the studies evaluating MHT and cardiovascular risk, including thromboembolism or stroke, were selected. Results: Timing of MHT initiation was shown to be a critical factor in CV risk assessment. In concordance with the “timing hypothesis”, healthy symptomatic women who initiated MHT when aged younger than 60 years, or who were within 10 years of menopause onset, have demonstrated a reduction in both coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and all-cause mortality. In particular, MHT therapy was associated with improvement of subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk is reduced when low doses of oral estrogen are used. Moreover, transdermal hormonal application significantly reduces CV risk compared with oral administration. MHT impact on the CV system is influenced by either factors inherent to the specific regimen, or factors inherent to the specific patient. Hence, individualization of care is necessary. Conclusion: CV risk calculation should be considered by clinicians in order to exclude patients with high CV risk, in whom MHT is contraindicated. Assessing risks and benefits in a patient-centered approach according to individual's features, health status, and personal preferences is important in order to realize a safe and effective treatment.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)N/A-N/A
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2019


  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Cardiovascular disease prevention
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopausal hormone therapy
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


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