The study of brain venous drainage has gained attention due to its hypothesized link with various neurological conditions. Intracranial and neck venous flow rate may be estimated using cardiac-gated cine phase-contrast (PC)-MRI. Although previous studies showed that breathing influences the neck's venous flow, this aspect could not be studied using the conventional segmented PC-MRI since it reconstructs a single cardiac cycle. The advent of real-time PC-MRI has overcome these limitations. Using this technique, we measured the internal jugular veins and superior sagittal sinus flow rates in a group of 16 healthy subjects (12 females, median age of 23 years). Comparing forced-breathing and free-breathing, the average flow rate decreased and the respiratory modulation increased. The flow rate decrement may be due to a vasoreactive response to deep breathing. The respiratory modulation increment is due to the thoracic pump's greater effect during forced breathing compared to free breathing. These results showed that the breathing mode influences the average blood flow and its pulsations. Since effective drainage is fundamental for brain health, rehabilitative studies might use the current setup to investigate if respiratory exercises positively affect clinical variables and venous drainage.
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2022|
- RT-PC MRI
- intracranial venous flow
- neck venous flow