The number of studies which evaluated interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) results after anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment has been rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of IGRAs (QFT-GIT, T-SPOT.TB, QFT-Plus) in assessing the response to anti-TB treatment. We searched all studies in English language published from 1 October 2011 to 18 November 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Our search included the term "tuberculosis treatment AND interferon-γ release assay". We included studies evaluating the performance of commercial IGRAs (including QFT-GIT, T-SPOT.TB and QFT-Plus) before and after the anti-TB treatment. We performed subgroup analysis based on the age (children, adults), type of TB (active, latent, active and latent, and contacts exposed to MDR defined as MDR LTBI), type of IGRAs (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB), and follow-up interval (2, 3, 4, 6, 9 months). Of the 18 included studies, 12 used QFT-GIT for assessment of IGRA performance after therapy, 1 used T-SPOT.TB, and 3 used both QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB. Since then, only two studies have assessed the QFT-Plus performance during therapy. According to the results of the meta-analysis, the pooled rate of positive IGRAs (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB) following anti-TB therapy was estimated at 76% [95% CI 70-81%] and no difference was found compared to the pooled positive rate of IGRAs before initiation of therapy which was 76% [95% CI 60-89%]. The subgroup analysis showed that the pooled rate of positive IGRAs (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB) after anti-TB therapy was significantly higher in monitoring active TB subjects [80% (95% CI 74-88%)] than LTBI [71% (95% CI 70-81%)]. Available data are now sufficient to suggest that monitoring changes in the IGRAs (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB) response during anti-TB treatment may have limited use in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, while the monitoring changes in QFT-Plus during anti-tubercular treatment are recommended to determine treatment efficacy or for treatment monitoring. Further research is needed to establish the efficacy of this new assay as marker on a larger scale for treatment monitoring.