The present review elucidated the use of optical imaging technique (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS) to better explain the brain plasticity for learning mechanisms, rehabilitation and post-traumatic brain recovery. Some recent applications were discussed, with specific focus on the usability of integrated measures (such as electroencephalography, EEG-NIRS; Transcranial Magnet Stimulation, TMS-NIRS) to study plasticity and its dynamic effects. NIRS-Neurofeedback and NIRS-BCI (Brain Computer Interface) were also explored as possible tools to produce a specific long-lasting learning in relationship with a specific cognitive domain. Finally a proficient domain where NIRS was found to be useful to test neuroplasticity is the interpersonal brain-tobrain coupling, termed "hyperscanning", a new emerging paradigm in neuroscience which measures brain activity from two or more people simultaneously.
- Brain plasticity