Blood Glucose Levels Combined with Triage Revised Trauma Score Improve the Outcome Prediction in Adults and in Elderly Patients with Trauma

Marcello Covino, Claudio Sandroni, Francesco Franceschi, Maria Grazia Bocci, Raffaella Zaccaria, Luigi Carbone, Enrico Torelli, Mariella Fuorlo, Andrea Piccioni, Michele Santoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

Abstract

Introduction: This study was aimed to assess if combining the evaluation of blood glucose level (BGL) and the Triage Revised Trauma Score (T-RTS) may result in a more accurate prediction of the actual clinical outcome, both in general adult population and in elderly patients with trauma. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban teaching hospital, with an average ED admission rate of 75,000 patients per year. Those excluded: known diagnosis of diabetes, age <18 years old, pregnancy, and mild trauma (classified as isolate trauma of upper or lower limb, in absence of exposed fractures). A combined Revised Trauma Score Glucose (RTS-G) score was obtained adding to T-RTS: two for BGL <160mg/dL (8.9mmol/L); one for BGL ≥160mg/dL and < 200mg/dL (11.1mmol/L); and zero for BGL ≥ 200mg/dL. The primary outcome was a composite of patient's death in ED or admission to intensive care unit (ICU). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the overall performance of T-RTS and of the combined RTS-G score. Results: Among a total of 68,933 traumas, 9,436 patients (4,407 females) were enrolled, aged from 18 to 103 years; 4,288 were aged ≥65 years. A total of 577 (6.1%) met the primary endpoint: 38 patients died in ED (0.4%) and 539 patients were admitted to ICU. The T-RTS and BGL were independently associated to primary endpoint at multivariate analysis. The cumulative RTS-G score was significantly more accurate than T-RTS and reached the best accuracy in elderly patients. In general population, ROC area under curve (AUC) for T-RTS was 0.671 (95% CI, 0.661 - 0.680) compared to RTS-G ROC AUC 0.743 (95% CI, 0.734 - 0.752); P <.001. In patients ≥65 years, T-RTS ROC AUC was 0.671 (95% CI, 0.657 - 0.685) compared to RTS-G ROC AUC 0.780 (95% CI, 0.768 - 0.793); P <.001. Conclusions: Results showed RTS-G could be used effectively at ED triage for the risk stratification for death in ED and ICU admission of trauma patients, and it could reduce under-triage of approximately 20% compared to T-RTS. Comparing ROC AUCs, the combined RTS-G score performs significantly better than T-RTS and gives best results in patients ≥65 years.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)175-182
Numero di pagine8
RivistaPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Volume2021
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2021

Keywords

  • Early Warning Score

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