Saliva testing is a non-invasive and inexpensive test that can serve as a source of information useful for diagnosis of disease. As we enter the era of genomic technologies and âomic research, collection of saliva has increased. Recent proteomic platforms have analysed the human salivary proteome and characterised about 3000 differentially expressed proteins and peptides: in saliva, more than 90% of proteins in weight are derived from the secretion of three couples of âmajorâ glands; all the other components are derived from minor glands, gingival crevicular fluid, mucosal exudates and oral microflora. The most common aim of proteomic analysis is to discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions. A proteomic protocol to analyze the whole saliva proteome is not currently available. It is possible distinguish two type of proteomic platforms: top-down proteomics investigates intact naturally-occurring structure of a protein under examination; bottom-up proteomics analyses peptide fragments after pre-digestion (typically with trypsin). Because of this heterogeneity, many different biomarkers may be proposed for the same pathology. The salivary proteome has been characterised in several diseases: oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia, chronic graft-versus-host disease SjÃ¶grenâs syndrome and other autoimmune disorders such as SAPHO, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and genetic diseases like Downâs Syndrome and Wilson disease. The results of research reported herein suggest that in the near future human saliva will be a relevant diagnostic fluid for clinical diagnosis and prognosis.
- Otorhinolaryngology2734 Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Salivary biomarkers