The vascularization of the human thalami is supplied by many perforating arteries, which exhibit complex distribution and many possible individual variations. One rare variant is the artery of Percheron that supplies the paramedian thalami bilaterally. Its ictal occlusion may result in a symmetric paramedian infarction, which generally leads to impairment of consciousness associated with hypersomnia. Our aim is to describe in detail sleep-wake schedules, sleep structure and microstructure in a 68-year-old patient with occlusion of Percheron's artery. EEG monitoring, performed 24 h after the onset of symptoms, showed severe disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, with episodes of sleep and wakefulness recurring irregularly during day and night. Thalamic nuclei are part of the human arousal system; medial thalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in sleep regulation at different levels. A diagnosis of paramedian thalamic infarction should be considered in patients who present with recurrent episodes of unresponsiveness.