OBJECTIVES: To investigate a possible independent predictive role of systemic inflammation markers on renal function after renal artery stenting. BACKGROUND: An elevated baseline serum creatinine has previously been shown to be the strongest predictor of improved renal function after percutaneous renal artery stenting. The inflammatory system is implicated in every stage of chronic kidney disease, and we hypothesized an additional value of markers of systemic inflammation in predicting response after renal artery stenting. METHODS: This single center, prospective study includes 62 consecutive patients with chronic kidney disease at stage ≥3 or resistant hypertension who underwent stent placement for 74 angiographically significant atherosclerotic renal lesions. Inflammatory markers, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count were determined prior to renal angioplasty and related to changes in renal function at follow-up. RESULTS: Six-month clinical follow up was completed in 57 patients. Overall, median serum creatinine concentration exhibited a non significant reduction from 1.40mg/dl (quartiles: 1.20, 1.75mg/dl) at baseline to 1.30mg/dl (quartiles: 1.1, 1.55mg/dl) at 6months (p=0.17). Significant multivariate independent predictors of decreased creatinine included higher baseline serum creatinine levels (adjusted OR per quartile increment, 2.5 [1.3 to 4.7], p=0.004) and lower C-reactive protein levels (adjusted OR per quartile increment 0.39 [0.19 to 0.82], p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with higher serum creatinine and lower CRP derive the most benefit from renal artery stenting.