Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Proposal of a Diagnostic Pathway Based on Clinical Features and Neuroimaging Findings

Rosalinda Calandrelli, Luca Massimi, Fabio Pilato, Tommaso Verdolotti, Antonio Ruggiero, Giorgio Attinà, Marco Gessi, Cesare Colosimo

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the main imaging and clinical features in adult- and pediatric-onset atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in order to build a predefined pathway useful for the diagnosis. Methods: We enrolled 11 ATRT patients (10 children, one adult) and we conducted a literature search on PubMed Central using the key terms "adult" or "pediatric" and "atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor". We collected clinical and neuroradiological data reported in previous studies and combined them with those from our case series. A three step process was built to reach diagnosis by identifying the main distinctive clinical and imaging features. Results: Clinical evaluation: neurological symptoms were nonspecific. ATRT was more frequent in children under 3 years of age (7 out of 10 children) and infratentorial localization was reported more frequently in children under the age of 24 months. Midline/off-midline localization was influenced by the age. Imaging findings: Preferential location near the ventricles and liquor spaces and the presence of eccentric cysts were hallmark for ATRT; higher frequency of peripheral cysts was detected in children and in the supratentorial compartment (five out of eight patients with solid-cystic ATRT). Leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis was common (5 out of 10 children), while intratumoral hemorrhage, calcifications, and high cellularity were non-specific findings. Histopathological analysis: specific immunohistochemical markers were essential to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: In younger children, a bulky, heterogeneous mass with eccentric cystic components and development near ventricles or cisternal spaces may be suggestive of ATRT. ATRT diagnosis is more challenging in adults and relies exclusively on neuropathological examination.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-19
Numero di pagine19
RivistaDiagnostics
Volume13
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2023

Keywords

  • CT
  • MRI
  • atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor
  • diagnostic paradigm

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