AIM: Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between attachment style, compliance, quality of life and renal function in adult patients after kidney transplantation. METHODS: A total of 43 adult patients who received a kidney transplant more than 3 months before were enrolled and were asked to complete two Self-Report questionnaires: Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ-40) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Also compliance was measured using appropriate questions. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis showed associations between the confidence in relationships (ASQ-40) and compliance [beta = -0.37; B = -0.02; t(41) = -2.51; p = 0.02]; aspects of anxious attachment style (ASQ-40) and creatinine levels [beta = 0.3; B = 0.13; t(41) = 2.03; p = 0.04]; aspects of avoidant attachment style (ASQ-40) and compliance [beta = -0.37; B = -3.15; t(41) = -2.35; p = 0.02]. Patients who exhibited avoidant attachment had a significantly better perception of their own general health than patients with anxious [F(2,37) = 6.8; p < 0.05] or secure attachment; however, they had a worse perception regarding role limitations due to emotional problems, compared to patients with anxious attachment [F(2,37) = 6.4; p < 0.05]. DISCUSSION: The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of the attachment style in adult kidney transplant patients can contribute to plan a goal-directed psychological support program for these patients, in order to increase their compliance. The association between aspects of anxious attachment style and creatinine level needs more investigations.