Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation associated with valvular heart disease: A joint consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, endorsed by the ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of Southern Africa (CASSA), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), South African Heart (SA Heart) Association and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE)

Bianca Rocca, Gregory Y. H Lip, Jean Philippe Collet, Raffaele De Caterina, Laurent Fauchier, Deirdre A Lane, Torben B Larsen, Francisco Marin, Joao Morais, Calambur Narasimhan, Brian Olshansky, Luc Pierard, Tatjana Potpara, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Karen Sliwa, Gonzalo Varela, Gemma Vilahur, Thomas Weiss, Giuseppe Boriani, Bulent GorenekIrina Savelieva, Christian Sticherling, Gulmira Kudaiberdieva, Tze-Fan Chao, Francesco Violi, Mohan Nair, Leandro Zimerman, Jonathan Piccini, Robert Storey, Sigrun Halvorsen, Diana Gorog, Andrea Rubboli, Ashley Chin, Robert Scott-Millar

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

61 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major public health problem1 with global prevalence rates (per 1000000 population) in 2010 being 596.2 (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 558.4-636.7) in men and 373.1 (95% UI, 347.9-402.2) in women; the incidence rates increased to 77.5 (95% UI, 65.2-95.4) in men and 59.5 (95% UI, 49.9-74.9) in women.2 Worldwide, AF in association with valvular heart disease (VHD) is also common, and management strategies for this group of patients have been less addressed by randomized trials. The latter have largely focused on 'non-valvular AF' patients leading to major uncertainties over how to define (and treat) such patients. There is also an important heterogeneity in the definition of valvular and non-valvular AF.3 Some physicians assume that any valve disease should be considered as 'valvular' AF. Others consider that only mechanical valve prosthesis and rheumatic mitral stenosis should be defined as 'valvular' AF. The term valvular AF has been arbitrarily applied and the 2016 ESC guidelines have avoided the term 'valvular AF' and refer simply to 'AF related to hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis or prosthetic mechanical heart valves'.4 AF clearly leads to an incremental risk for thromboembolism in patients with mitral valve stenosis, but there are limited data for other valvular diseases. Another proposal is to use the acronym MARM-AF as a simple acronym to designate 'Mechanical and Rheumatic Mitral AF' as an alternative to term 'valvular AF' to designate the clinical scenarios for which at the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are not indicated.5 For this document we recognize the uncertainty in terminology, and our scope largely relates to AF related to 'hemodynamically significant' rheumatic VHD (ie. severe enough to impact on patient's survival or necessitates an intervention or surgery) or prosthetic mechanical heart valves. Nonetheless, thrombo-embolic (TE) risk varies according to valve lesion and may be associated with CHA2DS2VASc score risk factor components, rather than the valve disease per se being causal.6,7 TE risk may also be influenced not only by type but also the severity of the lesion. For example, the degree of mitral regurgitation may matter when it comes to risk of TE as some studies suggest that mild (Grade 1) mitral regurgitation is associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of stroke/TE, while severe forms may possibly have a 'protective' effect (HR = 0.45 for stroke and 0.27 for LA stasis.8 An appropriate definition of 'valvular AF' would need to identify a subgroup of patients with similar pathophysiology of thrombo-embolism, TE risk, and treatment strategies6,9; however, this would be challenging given the major heterogeneity of the condition. This consensus document proposes that the term 'valvular AF' is outdated and given that any definition ultimately relates to the evaluated practical use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) type, we propose a functional EHRA (EvaluatedHeartvalves, Rheumatic orArtificial) categorization in relation to the type of OAC use in patients with AF, as follows:Evaluated Heartvalves, Rheumatic or Artificial (EHRA) Type 1,which refers to AF patients with 'VHD needing therapy with a Vitamin K antagonist (VKA)'
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1757-1768
Numero di pagine12
RivistaEuropace
Volume19
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2017

Keywords

  • Anticoagulation
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Mechanical prosthetic heart valves
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Pregnancy
  • Stroke
  • Stroke prevention
  • Thromboembolism
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Vitamin K antagonists

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