Analysis of amount, size, protein phenotype and molecular content of circulating extracellular vesicles identifies new biomarkers in multiple myeloma

Ilaria Laurenzana, Stefania Trino, Daniela Lamorte, Marco Girasole, Simone Dinarelli, Angelo De Stradis, Vitina Grieco, Maddalena Maietti, Maria Emilia Maietti, Antonio Traficante, Teodora Statuto, Oreste Villani, Pellegrino Musto, Alessandro Sgambato, Luciana De Luca, Antonella Caivano

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally secreted cellular lipid bilayer particles, which carry a selected molecular content. Owing to their systemic availability and their role in tumor pathogenesis, circulating EVs (cEVs) can be a valuable source of new biomarkers useful for tumor diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. However, a precise approach for isolation and characterization of cEVs as tumor biomarkers, exportable in a clinical setting, has not been conclusively established. Methods: We developed a novel and laboratory-made procedure based on a bench centri-fuge step which allows the isolation of serum cEVs suitable for subsequent characterization of their size, amount and phenotype by nanoparticle tracking analysis, microscopy and flow cytometry, and for nucleic acid assessment by digital PCR. Results: Applied to blood from healthy subjects (HSs) and tumor patients, our approach permitted from a small volume of serum (i) the isolation of a great amount of EVs enriched in small vesicles free from protein contaminants; (ii) a suitable and specific cell origin identification of EVs, and (iii) nucleic acid content assessment. In clonal plasma cell malignancy, like multiple myeloma (MM), our approach allowed us to identify specific MM EVs, and to characterize their size, concentration and microRNA content allowing significant discrimination between MM and HSs. Finally, EV associated biomarkers corre-lated with MM clinical parameters. Conclusion: Overall, our cEV based procedure can play an important role in malignancy biomarker discovery and then in real-time tumor monitoring using minimal invasive samples. From a practical point of view, it is smart (small sample volume), rapid (two hours), easy (no specific expertise required) and requirements are widely available in clinical laboratories.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)3141-3160
Numero di pagine20
RivistaInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2021


  • Biomarkers
  • Digital PCR
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Flow cytometry
  • Hematological malignancies
  • Nanoparticle tracking analysis


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