Adipose tissue is a specialized endocrine and paracrine organ producing specific factors called adipokines. It is well known that adipokines balance is fundamental to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. During the last years, new roles of adipokines have been emerging in the field of fertility and reproduction. Although the literature is still quite controversial, this review serves to resume current knowledge on this topic. Alterations in adipokine levels or in their mechanism of action are associated with fertility impairment and pregnancy diseases, as well as with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Normal levels of adipokines are fundamental to maintain integrity of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, regular ovulatory processes, successful embryo implantation, and physiologic pregnancy. More efforts are needed to understand the mechanisms and to the extent to which adipokine changes are involved in the impairment of fertility and pregnancy outcome, to find possible medical treatments. Target Audience: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completion of this educational activity, the obstetrician/gynecologist should be better able to demonstrate current knowledge in the research field of adipokines in fertility and reproduction; evaluate the central role of metabolism balance in good pregnancy outcome; and apply new perspectives of studies.