Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease produced by a cascade of events that can ultimately lead to joint damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adelmidrol, a synthetic palmitoylethanolamide analogue, combined with hyaluronic acid on pain severity and modulation of the inflammatory response in a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis. Methods OA was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA in the knee joint. On day 21 post-MIA administration, the knee joint was analyzed. Rats subjected to OA were treated by intra-articular injection of adelmidrol in combination with sodium hyaluronate at different doses and time points after MIA induction. Limb nociception was assessed by the paw withdrawal latency and threshold measurement. Samples were examined macroscopically, histologically, and by immunohistochemistry. Results At day 21 post-MIA injection, the MIA + solvent and MIA + 1.0% sodium hyaluronate groups showed irregularities and fibrillation in the surface layer, a decrease in blood cells and multilayering in transition and radial zones, no pannus formation, and modified Mankin scores significantly higher than sham knees. The combination of hyaluronic acid and adelmidrol dose-dependently (adelmidrol 0.6% + 1.0% sodium hyaluronate and adelmidrol 2% + 1.0% sodium hyaluronate) reduced the histological alterations induced by MIA. Moreover, degeneration of articular cartilage, mast cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine plasma levels were significantly downregulated by treatment with a combination of hyaluronic acid and adelmidrol at the above doses. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate that the combination of hyaluronic acid and adelmidrol improves the signs of OA induced by MIA.
- Cartilage degeneration
- Sodium hyaluronate