Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) are perceived to have worse outcomes than autologous HCT recipients and non-transplant patients with hematologic malignancy (HM). Within a large international prospective cohort, we evaluated clinical outcomes in these 3 populations. We conducted a secondary analysis of the EFRAIM study, a multicenter observational study of immunocompromised adults with ARF admitted to 62 intensive care units (ICUs) in 16 countries. We described characteristics and compared outcomes of patients with HM who did not undergo transplantation and patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HCT using multivariable logistic regression and propensity score-matched analyses. A total of 801 patients were included: 570 who did not undergo transplantation, 86 autologous HCT recipients and 145 allogeneic HCT recipients. Acute myelogenous leukemia (171 of 570; 30%) was the most common HM and most common indication for allogeneic HCT (76 of 145; 52%). Compared with the patients who did not undergo HCT and autologous HCT recipients, allogeneic HCT recipients were younger, had fewer comorbid conditions, and were more likely to undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy in the ICU. Unadjusted ICU and hospital mortality were 35% and 45%, respectively, across the entire cohort. In multivariable regression analysis, autologous HCT (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], .57 to 2.03; P = .82) and allogeneic HCT (OR, .99; 95% CI, .60 to 1.66; P = .98) were not associated with higher hospital mortality compared with the no-HCT cohort, adjusting for demographic, functional, clinical, malignancy, and ARF characteristics. The results were similar when analyzed using propensity score-matching techniques. Our findings indicate that autologous and allogeneic HCT recipients who develop ARF and require ICU admission have similar hospital mortality as patients with HM not treated with HCT.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Acute respiratory failure
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Stem cell transplantation.