To evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay (QFT-IT) in children with suspected active or latent TB infectionTo evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay (QFT-IT) in children with suspected active or latent TB infection (LTBI).METHODS-A retrospective study was conducted on 621 children (0-14 years old) evaluated for TB infection or disease. Following clinical assessment, children were tested with the QFT-IT assay.RESULTS-Among the 140 active TB suspects, we identified 19 cases of active disease. The overall sensitivity for active TB was 87.5%, ranging from 62.5% in children 25-36 months old to 100% in children older than 49 months. The overall specificity for active TB was 93.6%. Among the 481 children tested for LTBI screening, 38 scored positive and all but 2 had at least one risk factor for TB infection. Among the 26 children with indeterminate results, bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia were later diagnosed in 11 (42.3%) cases and non-TB related extra-pulmonary infections in 12 (46.1%).CONCLUSIONS-Our results indicate that the children's response to QFT-IT associates to active TB and risk factors for LTBI. Moreover, we show that mitogen response is also found in children of 1 year of age, providing support for QFT-IT use also in young children- (LTBI).