A Psychometric Tool for Evaluating Executive Functions in Parkinson’s Disease

Francesca Borgnis, Francesca Baglio, Elisa Pedroli, Federica Rossetto, Mario Meloni, Anna Maria Meloni, Giuseppe Riva, Pietro Cipresso

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review


Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using 360◦ virtual-reality video for an ecologically valid assessment of executive functioning in the neurologic population. In this framework, we have developed the EXecutive-functions Innovative Tool (EXIT 360◦ ), an original 360◦-based instrument for a multicomponent, ecologically valid evaluation of executive functioning in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). This work aimed to test the usability and user experience of EXIT 360◦ in patients with PD (PwPD). Twenty-seven PwPD and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent an evaluation that involved: (1) usability assessment by the System Usability Scale and (2) evaluation of user experience using the ICT—Sense of Presence and User Experience Questionnaire. Results showed a satisfactory level of usability for patients (mean = 76.94 ± 9.18) and controls (mean = 80 ± 11.22), with good scores for usability and learnability. Regarding user experience, patients provided a positive overall impression of the tool, evaluating it as attractive, enjoyable, activating, and funny. Moreover, EXIT 360◦ showed good pragmatic (e.g., efficient, fast, clear) and hedonic quality (e.g., exciting, interesting, and creative). Finally, PwPD considered EXIT 360◦ as an original tool with high ecological validity (mean = 4.29 ± 0.61), spatial presence (mean = 3.11 ± 0.83) and engagement (mean = 3.43 ± 0.54) without relevant adverse effects. Technological expertise had no impact on performance. Overall, EXIT 360◦ appeared to be a usable, easy-to-learn, engaging, and innovative instrument for PD. Further studies will be conducted to deepen its efficacy in distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with executive dysfunctions.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1153-N/A
RivistaJournal of Clinical Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2022


  • 360
  • Assessment
  • Engagement
  • Executive function
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Patients
  • Usability
  • User experience
  • Virtual reality
  • environment


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