A Potentially Ecosustainable Hazelnut/Carob-Based Spread

Laura Principato, Daniele Carullo, Alice Gruppi, Guillermo Duserm Garrido, Gianluca Giuberti, Milena Lambri, Giorgia Spigno*, Andrea Bassani

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Commercial cocoa and hazelnut-based sweet spreads typically present a poor nutribiochemical level due to their ingredients and recipes, while nowadays, there is the need of developing sustainable food products addressing both an improved nutritional and environmental profile. The aim of this work was then to develop an innovative hazelnut/carob-based spread with potential high sustainability and nutritional profile, including the exploitation of grape-processing residues (grape skin flour and grapeseed oil) and carob pulp as cocoa surrogate. Rheological (rotational/oscillatory), oxidative, and thermal features of the spread were assessed and compared with two commercial nut-cocoa-based products. Tribology was used to mimic and evaluate the spreads' behavior during oral consumption, and sensory profile (by quantitative descriptive analysis) was also assessed. All products exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior, with the elastic component prevailing over the viscous one. The innovative product showed the highest lubricity from both rheological and sensory analysis, thus well correlating to the obtained lowest viscosity and friction factor trends. Grapeseed oil provided a better nutritional profile, but the largest amount of unsaturated fatty acids promoted oxidation, despite the higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity coming from the use of carob and grape skin powders. The sensory perception investigation revealed a characteristic mouthfeel/flavor for the new spread identified having a more fluid consistency and a bitter/sour taste, together with a greater stickiness and a poorer smoothness due to a higher fiber content and solid fat absence.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-15
Numero di pagine15
RivistaInternational Journal of Food Science
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2024


  • Carob
  • Hazelnut
  • Rheology
  • Sensory Perception
  • Spread
  • Tribology


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