Purpose: Clinical data on patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is still scarce.
Methods: We collected data from 13 hospitals in Italy, Spain, Brazil, and Greece over a 3-year period (2011–2013) including patients from ICU, medical, and surgical wards.
Results: A total of 481 patients were included in the study. Of these, 27 % were hospitalized in ICU. Mean age was 63 years and 57 % of patients were male. IAC mainly consisted of secondary peritonitis (41 %) and abdominal abscesses (30 %); 68 (14 %) cases were also candidemic and 331 (69 %) had concomitant bacterial infections. The most commonly isolated Candida species were C. albicans (n = 308 isolates, 64 %) and C. glabrata (n = 76, 16 %). Antifungal treatment included echinocandins (64 %), azoles (32 %), and amphotericin B (4 %). Septic shock was documented in 40.5 % of patients. Overall 30-day hospital mortality was 27 % with 38.9 % mortality in ICU. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03–1.07, P\0.001), increments in 1-point APACHE II scores (OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01–1.08, P = 0.028), secondary peritonitis (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02–2.89, P = 0.019), septic shock (OR 3.29, 95 % CI 1.88–5.86, P\0.001), and absence of adequate abdominal source control (OR 3.35, 95 % CI 2.01–5.63, P\0.001) were associated with mortality. In patients with septic shock, absence of source control correlated with mortality rates above 60 % irrespective of administration of an adequate antifungal therapy.
Conclusions: Low percentages of concomitant candidemia and high mortality rates are documented in IAC. In patients presenting with septic shock, source control is fundamental
- abdominal candidiasis