A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Intellectual Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy over Age: Is It Really Stable?

Daniela Pia Rosaria Chieffo, Federica Moriconi, Marika Pane, Simona Lucibello, Elisabetta Ferraroli, Giulia Norcia, Martina Ricci, Anna Capasso, Gianpaolo Cicala, Bianca Buchignani, Giorgia Coratti, Costanza Cutrona, Monia Pelizzari, Claudia Brogna, Jos G. M. Hendriksen, Francesco Muntoni, Eugenio Maria Mercuri

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the consistency of longitudinal findings on intellectual functioning in DMD boys and their relationship to behavioral and neuropsychiatric difficulties. The cohort included 70 patients of age 3 to 17 years with at least two assessments using the Wechsler scales. CBCL and clinical observation of behavior were also performed. Changes in total intelligence quotient were interpreted as stable or not stable using the reliable-change method. On the first assessment 43/70 had normal quotients, 18 borderline, 5 mild, and 4 moderate intellectual disability, while 27/70 had no behavioral disorders, 17 had abnormal CBCL, and 26 patients had clear signs of attention deficits despite normal CBCL. The remaining seven were untestable. The mean total intelligence quotient change in the cohort was -2.99 points (SD: 12.29). Stable results on TIQ were found in 63% of the paired assessments. A third of the consecutive cognitive assessments showed a difference of more than 11 points with changes up to 42 points. Boys with no behavioral/attention disorder had smaller changes than those with attention (p = 0.007) and behavioral disorders (p = 0.002). Changes in IQ may occur in Duchenne and are likely to be associated with behavioral or attention deficits.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-9
Numero di pagine9
RivistaJournal of Clinical Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2023


  • ADHD
  • cognitive
  • neurobehavioral
  • neuromuscular disorders
  • pediatric
  • progressive muscular dystrophy


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