From the first century AD, Europe has been interested by population movements, commonly known as Barbarian migrations.
Among these processes, the one involving the Longobard culture interested a vast region, but its dynamics and demographic
impact remains largely unknown. Here we report 87 new complete mitochondrial sequences coming from nine earlymedieval
cemeteries located along the area interested by the Longobard migration (Czech Republic, Hungary and Italy).
From the same areas, we sampled necropoleis characterized by cultural markers associated with the Longobard culture (LC)
and coeval burials where no such markers were found, or with a chronology slightly preceding the presumed arrival of the
Longobards in that region (NLC). Population genetics analysis and demographic modeling highlighted a similarity between
LC individuals, as reflected by the sharing of quite rare haplogroups and by the degree of genetic resemblance between
Hungarian and Italian LC necropoleis estimated via a Bayesian approach, ABC. The demographic model receiving the
strongest statistical support also postulates a contact between LC and NLC communities, thus indicating a complex
dynamics of admixture in medieval Europe.