Purpose: Because of emergence of resistance to osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), no targeted treatments are available for patients with lung cancer who lose sensitivity due to new mutations or bypass mechanisms. We examined in animals and in vitro an alternative therapeutic approach making use of antibodies. Experimental Design: An osimertinib-sensitive animal model of lung cancer, which rapidly develops drug resistance, has been employed. To overcome compensatory hyperactivation of ERK, which we previously reported, an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) was combined with other antibodies, as well as with a subtherapeutic dose of osimertinib, and cancer cell apoptosis was assayed. Results: Our animal studies identified a combination of three clinically approved drugs, cetuximab, trastuzumab (an anti-HER2 mAb), and osimertinib (low dose), as an effective and long-lasting treatment that is able to prevent onset of resistance to osimertinib. A continuous schedule of concurrent treatment was sufficient for effective tumor inhibition and for prevention of relapses. Studies employing cultured cells and analyses of tumor extracts indicated that the combination of two mAbs and a subtherapeutic TKI dose sorted EGFR and HER2 for degradation; cooperatively enhanced apoptosis; inhibited activation of ERK; and reduced abundance of several bypass proteins, namely MET, AXL, and HER3. Conclusions: Our in vitro assays and animal studies identified an effective combination of clinically approved drugs that might overcome resistance to irreversible TKIs in clinical settings. The results we present attribute the long-lasting effect of the drug combination to simultaneous blockade of several well-characterized mechanisms of drug resistance.
|Numero di pagine||12|
|Rivista||Clinical Cancer Research|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2018|
- Lung cancer
- Drug resistance