5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA)–Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence by Glioma Cells. A Fluorescence Microscopy Clinical Study

Simone Pacioni, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Stefano Giannetti, Giuseppe Maria Della Pepa, Martina Offi, Martina Giordano, Valerio Maria Caccavella, Maria Laura Falchetti, Liverana Lauretti, Roberto Pallini

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced PpIX fluorescence is used by neurosurgeons to identify the tumor cells of high-grade gliomas during operation. However, the issue of whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence consistently stains all the tumor cells is still debated. Here, we assessed the cytoplasmatic signal of 5-ALA by fluorescence microscopy in a series of human gliomas. As tumor markers, we used antibodies against collapsin response-mediated protein 5 (CRMP5), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), and anti-isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). In grade III–IV gliomas, the signal induced by 5-ALA was detected in 32.7–75.5 percent of CRMP5-expressing tumor cells. In low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II), the CRMP5-expressing tumor cells did not fluoresce following 5-ALA. Immunofluorescence with antibodies that stain various components of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) suggested that 5-ALA does not cross the un-breached BBB, in spite of its small dimension. To conclude, 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence has an established role in high-grade glioma surgery, but it has limited usefulness in surgery for low-grade glioma, especially when the BBB is preserved.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)2844-N/A
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2022


  • 5-ALA
  • blood–brain barrier
  • fluorescence-guided surgery
  • high-grade glioma
  • low-grade glioma


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