Reconstruction of bone defects with the efficient restoration of tissue morphology and functionality is a critical medical challenge. Progress in 3D printing technologies offers new opportunities for precise bone architecture reproduction during scaffolds construction. At the same time, biomaterials are being designed and produced to achieve the desired functional, mechanical and supportive features and to guide cell behavior in vivo. Latest progress in biomaterials research makes the family of bidimensional carbon materials in the spotlight for their excellent bone regeneration and mechanical properties. Graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide can also be 3D printed to obtain patient-tailored scaffolds with controlled feature sizes in the mesoscopic range. In this review, we describe technologies developed for graphene 3D printing focusing on the osteogenic properties of graphene scaffolds. The multiple benefits achievable by a proper design of the graphene surface as well as the concerns on their biocompatibility are also highlighted. We believe that this overview of the latest progress and trends will provide the basis for the future improvement of implantable graphene bone grafts.
- 3D printing