We have shown that cortical neurons challenged with toxic concentrations of Î²-amyloid peptide (Î²AP) enter the S phase of the cell cycle before apoptotic death. Searching for a signaling molecule that lies at the border between cell proliferation and apoptotic death, we focused on the disialoganglioside GD3. Exposure of rat cultured cortical neurons to 25 Î¼M Î²AP(25-35) induced a substantial increase in the intracellular levels of GD3 after 4 hr, a time that precedes neuronal entry into S phase. GD3 levels decreased but still remained higher than in the control cultures after 16 hr of exposure to Î²AP(25-35). Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the GD3 synthesized in response to Î²AP colocalized with nuclear chromatin. The increase in GD3 was associated with a reduction of sphingomyelin (the main source of the ganglioside precursor ceramide) and with the induction of Î±-2,8-sialyltransferase (GD3 synthase), the enzyme that forms GD3 from the monosialoganglioside GM3. A causal relationship between GD3, cell-cycle activation, and apoptosis was demonstrated by treating the cultures with antisense oligonucleotides directed against GD3 synthase. This treatment, which reduced Î²AP(25-35)-stimulated GD3 formation by â¼50%, abolished the neuronal entry into the S phase and was protective against Î² AP(25-35)-induced apoptosis.
|Numero di pagine||6|
|Rivista||THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2002|
- Alzheimer's disease
- Cell cycle
- Ganglioside GD3
- Neuroscience (all)