Vascular calcification and bone mineral density in recurrent kidney stone formers

Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Linda Shavit, Daniela Girfoglio, Vivek Vijay, David Goldsmith, Shabbir H. Moochhala, Robert Unwi

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36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and objectives Recent epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for an association between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease, although the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Vascular calcification (VC) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and the hypothesis explored in this study is that VC is more prevalent in calcium kidney stone formers (KSFs). The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether recurrent calcium KSFs have more VC and osteoporosis compared with controls and (2) whether hypercalciuria is related to VC in KSFs. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This is a retrospective, matched case-control study that included KSFs attending an outpatient nephrology clinic of the Royal Free Hospital (London, UK) from2011 to 2014. Ageand sex-matched non-stone formers were drawn from a list of potential living kidney donors from the same hospital. A total of 111 patients were investigated, of which 57 were KSFs and 54 were healthy controls. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed using available computed tomography (CT) imaging. The prevalence, severity, and associations of AAC and CT BMD between KSFs and non-stone formers were compared. Results Mean age was 47614 years in KSFs and 47613 in non-stone formers. Men represented 56% and 57% of KSFs and non-stone formers, respectively. The prevalence ofAACwas similar in both groups (38%inKSFs versus 35% in controls, P=0.69). However, the AAC severity score (median [25th percentile, 75th percentile]) was significantly higher in KSFs compared with the control group (0 [0, 43] versus 0 [0, 10], P,0.001). In addition, the average CT BMD was significantly lower in KSFs (159653 versus 194 648 Hounsfield units, P,0.001). A multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, high BP, diabetes, smoking status, and eGFR confirmed that KSFs have higher AAC scores and lower CT BMD compared with non-stone formers (P,0.001 for both). Among stone formers, the association between AAC score and hypercalciuria was not statistically significant (P=0.86). Conclusions This study demonstrates that patients with calcium kidney stones suffer from significantly higher degrees of aortic calcification than age- and sex-matched non-stone formers, suggesting that VC may be an underlying mechanism explaining reported associations between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, bone demineralization is more prominent in KSFs. However, more data are needed to confirm the possibility of potentially common underlying mechanisms leading to extraosseous calcium deposition and osteoporosis in KSFs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-285
Number of pages8
JournalCLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Aorta, Abdominal
  • Aortic Diseases
  • Aortography
  • Bone Density
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypercalciuria
  • Kidney Calculi
  • Linear Models
  • London
  • Male
  • Medicine (all)
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nephrology
  • Osteoporosis
  • Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  • Prevalence
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spine
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Transplantation
  • Vascular Calcification
  • cardiovascular
  • kidney stones
  • vascular calcification

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