Validity and reliability of the Italian translation of the Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale

Sara Nordio, Lorenza Maistrello, Daniela D'Imperio, Niccolò Favaretto, Angela Dellai, Silvia Montino, Anna Agostinelli, Giulia Ramacciotti, Flavia Gheller, Giulia Berta, Isabella Koch, Elisabetta Zanoletti, Irene Battel, Diego Cazzador

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: In the dysphagic patient, pharyngeal residues (PR) are associated with aspiration and poor quality of life. The assessment of PR using validated scales during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is crucial for rehabilitation. This study aims to validate and test the reliability of the Italian version of the Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale (IT-YPRSRS). The effects of training and experience in FEES on the scale were also determined. Methods: The original YPRSRS was translated into Italian according to standardised guidelines. Thirty FEES images were selected after consensus and proposed to 22 naive raters who were asked to assess the severity of PR in each image. Raters were divided into two subgroups by years of experience at FEES, and randomly by training. Construct validity, inter-rater, and intra-rater reliability were assessed by kappa statistics. Results: IT-YPRSRS showed substantial to almost perfect agreement (kappa > 0.75) in validity and reliability for both the overall sample (660 ratings), and valleculae/pyriform sinus sites (330 ratings each). No significant differences emerged between groups considering years of experience, and variable differences were observed by training. Conclusions: The IT-YPRSRS demonstrated excellent validity and reliability in identifying location and severity of PR.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalActa Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • deglutition
  • fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing
  • scale
  • reliability
  • pharyngeal residue


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