Retrograde exploration of the ureter and kidneys is currently a widely used and well-established procedure to deal with problems of a diagnostic and therapeutic nature with reduced invasiveness. The process of miniaturizing the instruments combined with the steady improvement in video quality has continuously amplified its potential applications, maintaining the procedure safe and rapid. During an operation, however, unexpected events may condition a change to the programme or determine the onset of even more serious complications. Our aim is to analyze such events and complications and recommend potential solutions to prevent and/or deal with such happenings.
- Constriction, Pathologic
- Intraoperative Complications
- Research Design
- Surgical Procedures, Operative
- Ureteral Obstruction