Tracking eye-gaze in smart home systems (SHS): first insights from eye-tracking and self-report measures

Federico Cassioli, Laura Angioletti, Michela Balconi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human–computer interaction (HCI) is particularly interesting because full-immersive technology may be approached differently by users, depending on the complexity of the interaction, users’ personality traits, and their motivational systems inclination. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between psychological factors and attention towards specific tech-interactions in a smart home system (SHS). The relation between personal psychological traits and eye-tracking metrics is investigated through self-report measures [locus of control (LoC), user experience (UX), behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS)] and a wearable and wireless near-infrared illumination based eye-tracking system applied to an Italian sample (n = 19). Participants were asked to activate and interact with five different tech-interaction areas with different levels of complexity (entrance, kitchen, living room, bathroom, and bedroom) in a smart home system (SHS), while their eye-gaze behavior was recorded. Data showed significant differences between a simpler interaction (entrance) and a more complex one (living room), in terms of number of fixation. Moreover, slower time to first fixation in a multifaceted interaction (bathroom), compared to simpler ones (kitchen and living room) was found. Additionally, in two interaction conditions (living room and bathroom), negative correlations were found between external LoC and fixation count, and between BAS reward responsiveness scores and fixation duration. Findings led to the identification of a two-way process, where both the complexity of the tech-interaction and subjects’ personality traits are important impacting factors on the user’s visual exploration behavior. This research contributes to understand the user responsiveness adding first insights that may help to create more human-centered technology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2753-2762
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • BIS/BAS systems
  • Eye-tracking
  • Human–computer interaction
  • Locus of control
  • Smart home system


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