The dark side of current analytic methods for Bence Jones Proteinuria

P. Natali, G. Cigliana, Cecilia Napodano, V. Basile, D. Debbia, Krizia Pocino, M. Savoia, Mariapaola Marino*, F. Gulli, Umberto Basile

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OBJECTIVE: Bence Jones proteinuria (BJP) refers to monoclonal free immunoglobulin light chains detected in urine, deriving from the clonal expansion of plasma cells in the bone marrow in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, associated with monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain origin. This review summarizes routinely diagnostic procedures to assess BJP highlighting critical steps of preanalytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases.QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METH-ODS: The best option for BJP detection is the first morning void urine sample and immunofixation electrophoresis detection technique (IFE) the recommended method, with the employment of specific polyvalent antisera. Other qualitative tests for a quick evaluation of BJP are currently available. Densitometric analysis per-formed on the 24-hour urine is the recommended method to quantify BJP. To overcome the 24-hour collection, it is possible to use morning urine sample and correlate the assessed value of BJP to creatininuria. In addition to the traditional ones, we here reviewed screening methods currently used to avoid false negatives and reduce the time around test (TAT), together with immunochemical quantification methods for in-creased sensitivity, after checking BJP by IFE. Mass spectrometry emerges as a new challenge in the determination of BJP.CONCLUSIONS: The employment of different based-assays methods may be useful for diagnostic purposes to improve the accuracy of BJP monitoring in monoclonal gammopathies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6777-6786
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Bence Jones protein
  • Electrophoresis
  • Free light chains
  • Immunofixation
  • Monoclonal component


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