Strategies to Improve Vaccination among At-Risk Adults and the Elderly in Italy

Giovanna Elisa Calabro', Walter Ricciardi, Elettra Carini, Alessia Tognetto, Silvia Mancinelli, Laura Sarnari, Vittoria Colamesta, Chiara de Waure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The World Health Organization (WHO), the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC), and the immunization guidelines of many countries issue vaccination recommendations for adults and the elderly. However, the uptake of vaccination in these groups is generally low due to several reasons. The present study aimed to identify strategies implemented in Italy in unconventional settings to promote vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections among these subjects, i.e., the at-risk adult population and the elderly. We conducted a literature review and a survey of experts. The literature search yielded seven strategies; all of these concerned influenza vaccination, while three also addressed pneumococcal and HZV vaccination. The survey of experts identified 15 strategies; 10 regarded influenza vaccination, while four regarded pneumococcal vaccination and one regarded HZV vaccination. Most of the strategies were implemented in hospital clinics and rest homes. Regarding influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, the target population mainly comprised at-risk adults, while the elderly represented the main target population for HZV vaccination. Our results show that, in Italy, there are initiatives aimed at promoting vaccination in unconventional settings, but further efforts are required to assess their effectiveness and to further extend them.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • HZV vaccination
  • elderly
  • immunization strategies
  • influenza vaccination
  • pneumococcal vaccination


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