Sowing the seeds to overcome the “Iron Law” in Megaprojects

Franca Cantoni, Francesca Pagnone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


PMBOK [2017] claims that a project is successful when it meets the scope, within the targeted timeframe and budget. Unfortunately, “Over Budget, Over Time, Over and Over Again” is the summary of what is best known as Flyvbjerg’s “Iron Law of Megaprojects” [Flyvbjerg, 2003] which theorises that megaprojects have a history of failures in terms of missed achievement. Considering that risks tend to repeat themselves, easy to implement measures – some of which conven- tional, others less – are recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationA multidisciplinary approach to embrace complexity and sustainability
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • megaprojects
  • sustainability


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