Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, sleep disturbance, behavioral impairment, and intellectual disability. Its genetic cause has been defined as an alteration in the Retinoic Acid-Induced 1 gene. Cardiac anomalies have been reported since the first description of this condition in patients with 17p11.2 deletion. Variable cardiac defects, including ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, tricuspid stenosis, mitral stenosis, tricuspid and mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, tetralogy of Fallot, and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, have been anecdotally reported and systematic case series are still lacking. Herein, we define the spectrum of the cardiac phenotype and describe for the first time the cardiac function in a large cohort of pediatric patients with SMS. Revision of the literature and correlations between genotype and cardiac phenotype was performed.
- Smith–Magenis syndrome
- congenital heart disease
- functional cardiac findings
- personalized medicine
- phenotype–genotype correlation