Sentinel biomarkers in HCV positive patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia

Mariapaola Marino, Stefano Angelo Santini, Luca Miele, Gian Ludovico Rapaccini, Umberto Basile, Cecilia Napodano, Krizia Pocino, Laura Gragnani, Francesca Gulli, Serena Lorini, Valerio Basile, Anna Linda Zignego

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Infections, autoimmunity and cancer play a role as determinants of etiology in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) related mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). Several factors of risk have been suggested as markers of pathogenesis and progression of HCV-related MC into B cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (B-NHL). Here, we evaluated IgG subclass distribution, free light chains (FLCs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a new combination of biomarkers. Methods: We measured IgG1–4 subclasses, FLCs and VEGF levels in sera 53 from HCV-related MC, in comparison with 40 sera from HCV negative patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 from healthy blood donors (HBD). Results: IgG3 levels were significantly higher in HCV-MC patients with a decrement of IgG2 and IgG4; FLC levels significantly increased in both MC and RA patients' groups; serological VEGF was higher in HCV-MC patients than in HBD in correlation with k and λ levels. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a specific IgG subclasses pattern together with raised levels of FLCs and VEGF could represent the biomarker “signature” of an inflammation multistage of acquired immune system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112687-112693
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunological Methods
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • Free light chains
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Mixed cryoglobulinemia
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor


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