Risk stratification for invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies: SEIFEM recommendations

Livio Pagano, Mario Tumbarello, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Simone Cesaro, Rosa Fanci, Gianpaolo Nadali, Leonardo Potenza, Domenico Russo, Annamaria Nosari, Franco Aversa, Federica Lessi, Francesca Farina, Gloria Turri, Angelica Barone, Angelica Spolzino, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Angela Maria Quinto, Laura MaracciMitja Nabergoj, Benedetta Cambò, Anna Pegoraro, Francesco Marchesi, Silvia Pascale, Angela Passi, Melania Carlisi, Nicola Polverelli, Barbara Beggia, Benedetta Rambaldi, Lucia Prezioso, Marco Sanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)


Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematological malignancies undergoing conventional chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are considered at high risk, and . Aspergillus spp. represents the most frequently isolated micro-organisms. In the last years, attention has also been focused on other rare molds (e.g., Zygomycetes, . Fusarium spp.) responsible for devastating clinical manifestations. The extensive use of antifungal prophylaxis has reduced the infections from yeasts (e.g., candidemia) even though they are still associated with high mortality rates.This paper analyzes concurrent multiple predisposing factors that could favor the onset of fungal infections. Although neutropenia is common to almost all hematologic patients, other factors play a key role in specific patients, in particular in patients with AML or allogeneic HSCT recipients. Defining those patients at higher risk of IFIs may help to design the most appropriate diagnostic work-up and antifungal strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalBlood Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Hematology
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Leukemia
  • Molds
  • Oncology
  • Risk factors
  • Yeast

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