Risk factors for pancreas and lung neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case–control study

Giovanni Schinzari, Stefano Margaritora, Sergio Alfieri, Stefania Boccia, Guido Rindi, Luca Giraldi, Alessia Vecchioni, Mariangela Volante, Frediano Inzani, Gianluigi Petrone, Antonio Bianchi, Greta Carioli, Stefano La Rosa, Andrea Imperatori, Marco Volante, Maria Pia Brizzi, Carlo La Vecchia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) has been displaying an incremental trend along the last two decades. This phenomenon is poorly understood, and little information is available on risk factor for neuroendocrine neoplasia development. Aim of this work is to elucidate the role of potentially modifiable risk factors for pancreatic and pulmonary NEN. Methods: We conducted a case–control study on 184 patients with NEN (100 pancreas and 84 lung) and 248 controls. The structured questionnaire included 84 queries on socio-demographic, behavioral, dietary and clinical information. Results: Increased risk was associated with history of cancer (“other tumor”, lung OR = 7.18; 95% CI: 2.55–20.20 and pancreas OR = 5.88; 95% CI: 2.43–14.22; “family history of tumor”, lung OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.53–4.64 and pancreas OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.19–3.17; “family history of lung tumor”, lung OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.05–6.24 and pancreas OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.13–5.95). Type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with an increased risk of pancreatic NEN (OR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.15–7.89). Conclusions: Besides site-specific risk factors, there is a significant link between neuroendocrine neoplasia and cancer in general, pointing to a shared cancer predisposition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-241
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Case-Control Studies
  • Case–control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Lung Neoplasms
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • Neuroendocrine neoplasia
  • OR
  • Pancreas
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk factor


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