Regional and gender differentials in the persistence of unemployment in Europe

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The persistence of unemployment increased during the recent great recession in many European countries, although with diversified impacts. We therefore analyse such impacts in four European countries–Italy, Spain, France and the UK–which represent different institutional frameworks and may reflect the so-called continental European and Anglo-Saxon frameworks. We analyse the determinants of unemployment persistence using individual-level data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) panel for the period 2007–2013. These data enable us to take into account initial conditions and state dependence in addition to individual and household characteristics. We focus on gender and regional effects, which have a strong impact on the persistence in the state of unemployment. We find that gender gap is significant in Italy and the UK, implying that male workers show a higher probability of remaining unemployed. In Italy, such a pattern is due to the worsening of male workers’ conditions during the crisis, whereas in the UK, male workers show higher unemployment rates than women. Regional effects are significant in all countries analysed and underline a relevant structural factor that should be addressed on policy grounds in Europe. Such effects are greater in Spain and Italy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-190
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Review of Applied Economics
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Unemployment persistence
  • comparison across countries
  • gender differential
  • initial conditions
  • persitence of unemployment
  • state dependence
  • unemployment


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