Regenerative endodontic procedures using contemporary endodontic materials

Simone Staffoli, Gianluca Plotino, Barbara G. Nunez Torrijos, Nicola Maria Grande, Maurizio Bossù, Gianluca Gambarini, Antonella Polimeni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


Calcium hydroxide apexification and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) apexification are classical treatments for necrotic immature permanent teeth. The first tend to fail for lack of compliance given the high number of sessions needed; the second has technical difficulties such as material manipulation and overfilling. With both techniques, the root development is interrupted leaving the tooth with a fragile root structure, a poor crown-to-root ratio, periodontal breakdown, and high risk of fracture, compromising long-term prognosis of the tooth. New scientific literature has described a procedure that allows complete root development of these specific teeth. This regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) proposes the use of a combination of antimicrobials and irrigants, no canal walls instrumentation, induced apical bleeding to form a blood clot and a tight seal into the root canal to promote healing. MTA is the most used material to perform this seal, but updated guidelines advise the use of other bioactive endodontic cements that incorporate calcium and silicate in their compositions. They share most of their characteristics with MTA but claim to have fewer drawbacks with regards to manipulation and aesthetics. The purpose of the present article is to review pertinent literature and to describe the clinical procedures protocol with its variations, and their clinical application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)908-911
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Immature permanent tooth
  • Necrotic pulp
  • Regenerative endodontics
  • Revascularization
  • Revitalization


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