Quizartinib versus salvage chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia

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Abstract

Background Patients with relapsed or refractory FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)-positive acute myeloid leukaemia have a poor prognosis, including high frequency of relapse, poorer response to salvage therapy, and shorter overall survival than those with FLT3 wild-type disease. We aimed to assess whether single-agent quizartinib, an oral, highly potent and selective type II FLT3 inhibitor, improves overall survival versus salvage chemotherapy. Methods QuANTUM-R is a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 152 hospitals and cancer centres in 19 countries. Eligible patients aged 18 years or older with ECOG performance status 0–2 with relapsed or refractory (duration of first composite complete remission ≤6 months) FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia after standard therapy with or without allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation were randomly assigned (2:1; permuted block size of 6; stratified by response to previous therapy and choice of chemotherapy via a phone-based and web-based interactive response system) to quizartinib (60 mg [30 mg lead-in] orally once daily) or investigator's choice of preselected chemotherapy: subcutaneous low-dose cytarabine (subcutaneous injection of cytarabine 20 mg twice daily on days 1–10 of 28-day cycles); intravenous infusions of mitoxantrone (8 mg/m2 per day), etoposide (100 mg/m2 per day), and cytarabine (1000 mg/m2 per day on days 1–5 of up to two 28-day cycles); or intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (300 μg/m2 per day or 5 μg/kg per day subcutaneously on days 1–5), fludarabine (intravenous infusion 30 mg/m2 per day on days 2–6), cytarabine (intravenous infusion 2000 mg/m2 per day on days 2–6), and idarubicin (intravenous infusion 10 mg/m2 per day on days 2–4 in up to two 28-day cycles). Patients proceeding to haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation after quizartinib could resume quizartinib after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02039726, and follow-up is ongoing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)984-997
Number of pages14
JournalTHE LANCET ONCOLOGY
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Quizartinib versus salvage chemotherapy

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