Proposal of a Full Digital Workflow for a Bite Fork to Assess Mandibular Advancement during Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Cristina Grippaudo*, Grazia Rizzotto, Antonino Lo Giudice, Stefano Negrini, Fabrizio Anelli, Luigi Corina, Jacopo Galli, Antonella Fiorita

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: (1) Background. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is currently regarded as the gold standard diagnostic procedure to assess the site(s) of upper airway collapse in subjects affected by Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). During DISE, a jaw thrust maneuver is performed to advance the mandible and to predict the effectiveness of outcomes of treatment with mandibular advancement devices (MADs). However, the maneuver is not predictable and could be influenced by specific patients’ anatomical/functional conditions. The aim of this work is to propose a full-digital workflow for customizing an individual mandibular advancement fork, usable by otorhinolaryn gologists during DISE. (2) Materials. Two patients with a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate OSAS (AHI ≥ 5 to ≤30/h of sleep) underwent orthodontic examination to verify the usability of the MAD. Intra-oral scans and registration were performed, including bite registration with 65% of mandibular advancement. The latter measurement was used as a reference to design a 3D-printed fork for DISE, as well as for the future MAD. Both patients underwent DISE in the operating room in the presence of an anesthesiologist, otolaryngologist, orthodontic specialist and neurophysiopathology technician. (3) Results. In the intraoperative polysomnography recording, during sleep, the pres ence of obstructive apnea was confirmed based on respiratory parameters (PNG1, PNG2, PNG3) with associated desaturation and increased muscle activities on PNG4 (mylohyoid muscle), EMG1 (right masseter muscle) and EMG2 (left masseter muscle). With the advancement fork in place, the immediate improvement effect on all respiratory parameters with normal saturation values and the complete suppression of masseter muscles were observed. Accordingly, both patients were considered potential good-responders to the MAD treatment. (4) Conclusions. The preliminary data shown are encouraging and would suggest that the fork represents a stable reference for the otorhinolaryngologist to evaluate the airway patency within the physiological range of movement. The efficiency of the work-flow from data registration to the DISE procedure and laboratory process represent two significant advantages that justify the integration of a digital system in the management of patients affected by OSAS
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE)
  • full digital workflow
  • mandibular advancement devices (MADs)


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