20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a process by which the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is restored, has demonstrated extraordinary cure rates for Clostridium difficile infection and low recurrence. The community of microorganisms within the human gut (or microbiota) is critical to health status and functions; therefore, together with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiota has emerged as a 'virtual' organ with a level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system and capable to compete with powerful known antibiotics for the treatment of several disorders. Although treatment protocols, donor selection, stool preparation and delivery methods varied widely, with a few reports following an identical protocol, FMT has diffused to other areas where the alterations of the gut microbiota ecology (or dysbiosis) have been theorized to play a causative role, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among several other extra-intestinal disorders (i.e. metabolic syndrome and obesity, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases). FMT can be relatively simple to perform, but a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in clinical practice, and currently, there is no consensus between the various gastrointestinal organizations and societies regarding the FMT procedure. In this article, we describe the modern high-throughput sequencing techniques to characterize the composition of gut microbiota and the potential for therapeutics by manipulating microbiota with FMT in several gastrointestinal disorders (C. difficile-associated diarrhea, IBD and IBS), with a look on the potential future directions of FMT.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-285
Number of pages7
JournalDigestive Diseases
Volume34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Clostridium difficile
  • Fecal transplantation
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Gut microbiota
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Metagenomic

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