Precision medicine and public health: New challenges for effective and sustainable health

Giovanna Elisa Calabro', Stefania Boccia, Francesco Gianfagna, Ilda Hoxhaj, Michele Sassano, Paolo Villari, Deborah Traversi, Alessandra Pulliero, Alberto Izzotti, Elena Franchitti, Alessandro Gialluisi, Benedetta Izzi, Antonella Agodi, Martina Barchitta, Luca Gino Sbrogiò, Annamaria Del Sole, Francesco Marchiori, Erica Pitini, Carolina Marzuillo, Corrado De VitoManuela Tamburro, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Giancarlo Ripabelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The development of high-throughput omics technologies represents an unmissable opportunity for evidence-based prevention of adverse effects on human health. However, the applicability and access to multi-omics tests are limited. In Italy, this is due to the rapid increase of knowledge and the high levels of skill and economic investment initially necessary. The fields of human genetics and public health have highlighted the relevance of an implementation strategy at a national level in Italy, including integration in sanitary regulations and governance instruments. In this review, the emerging field of public health genomics is discussed, including the polygenic scores approach, epigenetic modulation, nutrigenomics, and microbiomes implications. Moreover, the Italian state of implementation is presented. The omics sciences have important implications for the prevention of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, especially because they can be used to assess the health status during the whole course of life. An effective population health gain is possible if omics tools are implemented for each person after a preliminary assessment of effectiveness in the medium to long term.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-30
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Early disease prevention
  • Epigenetic modulations
  • Genetic and microbiome markers
  • Public health genomics
  • Health technology assessment
  • MiRNA
  • Genetic polymorphisms

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