Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) with a minimal tumor-free margin is considered the cornerstone in the contemporary management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) stage T1. The aim of this study is to review incidence, predictive risk factors, clinical significance and oncologic outcomes of positive surgical margins (PSM) in NSS. English articles published before March 2014 have been searched in Medline Databank.PSM are present in 0-7% of patients in all surgical approaches considered. Some predictive factors,such as tumor size, localization, and histology have been identified in the past. Other topics concerning surgical technique and approach are discussed.The majority of patients with PSM do not experience disease recurrence and PSM impact on overall survival and cancer-specific survival seems to be irrelevant. These results lead to more conservative clinical strategies. However, an active surveillance is mandatory for all patients with PSM and especially for those with high risk disease. Generalization of these results is limited by the low level of evidence of available studies. Further efforts are necessary to avoid PSM intraoperatively and to provide prospective information in order to standardize the postoperative management.
- carcinoma renale
- chirurgia conservativa