PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND A HERBICIDE MIXTURE ON THE SOFT-SHELL CLAM MYA ARENARIA (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA)

Ettore Capri, Angela Sacchi, Marco Fusi, Greco Luna, Pellerin Jocelyne, Garnerot Florent, Louis Severine, Fournier Michel, Lapointe Dominique, Couture Patrice

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Abstract

The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of temperature and a mixture of herbicides on the physiological status of the bivalve Mya arenaria. Bivalves acclimated to two temperatures (7 and 188C) were exposed for 28 d to 0.01 mg/L of a pesticide formulation containing dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (mecoprop), and 3,6- dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba). At days 7, 14, and 28, mortality, immune parameters (hemocyte number, phagocytic activity, and efficiency), biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activities and malondialdehyde[MDA] content), the metabolic enzyme cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), a biomarker of pesticide exposure (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), and the activity of an enzyme related to gametogenesis (aspartate transcarbamylase [ATCase]) were monitored in clam tissues. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), and sex were also assessed. In clams acclimated to 78C, exposure to pesticide enhanced CCO activity and CF and decreased MDA content, hemocyte number, CAT, and SOD activities. In clams kept at 188C,pesticide effects appeared minor compared with samples kept at 78C. In bivalves acclimated to 188C, CCO, SOD, and ATCase activity and MDA content were enhanced, and hemocyte number, CAT, and AchE activities and phagocytosis were suppressed. In samples exposed to pesticides, increased temperature enhanced MDA content and CCO and SOD activity and suppressed hemocyte number and CAT and AchE activity. A gradual sexual maturation was observed in both sexes through experimental time, but females had a higher sensitivity to temperature and pesticides compared to males. Increased temperature altered the ability of the sentinel species Mya arenaria to respond to pesticide exposures. Further work is needed to understand the impacts of increasing temperature on the whole St. Lawrence estuary ecosystem.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-141
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume2010
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • Chlorophenoxy herbicides
  • Climate change
  • Oxidative stress
  • Sexual development

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